Evolution of sexual reproduction, sexes and sex determination systems
Winter semester 2018
17 Oct 2018 - 7 Feb 2019
Prof. Dr. Jochen Wolf
Dr. Bart Nieuwenhuis
Sexual reproduction is the most common mode of reproduction in nature, however, its existence is one of the biggest problems in evolutionary biology. Why did sexual reproduction, a costly form of reproduction, evolve and why is it maintained? What led to the evolution of the two specialized groups ‘males’ and ‘females’? How does sex and the existence of sexes affect evolution at the genetic and genome level? In this seminar, based on classical and recent literature, we discuss these topics from the fundamental theory to recent genomic insights.
- The seminar takes place every Thursday 16:00 – 18:00.
- We start October 18th and have the last class on February 7th 2019.
- Each week two people will give a short presentation on the topics to be discussed that week,
- followed by a group discussion on one to two papers.
- The topics that will be discussed are:
- The many costs of sexual reproduction
- Benefits of recombination
- Benefits of sexually produced variation
- Evolution of sexual asymmetries: mating types
- Evolution of sexual asymmetries: anisogamy
- Evolution of sexual asymmetries: separate sexes
- Diversity of sex determination systems
- Environmental sex determination
- Sex chromosome evolution
- Sex chromosome turnover
- Sexual selection and sex chromosomes
- Sexes and “sex roles”
Last years list of papers etc can be found here:
nieuwenhuis AT bio.lmu.de
3 ECTS, 2 SWS
Biozentrum - room E 02.023
Großhadern Str. 2
In order to pass, students must (co-)lead the discussion of one session and participate actively in the discussion of all other topics.
The final grading is based both on the presentation (50%) and on the student's participation in the discussion throughout the entire course (50%).
Program Summer Semester 2018
Program (Summer semester 2018)
Class 1. Introduction - 18.10.18
Introduction (Slides) about:
Organization of the course
- What is sexual reproduction
- The problem with the maintenance of sex
- Anisogamy defines sexes
- Sexes, genders and mating types
Class 2. Sex, the "Queen of all problems" - 25.10.18
- Cost of sexual reproduction - Rebecca Hessmer
- Recombination load - William Conner
Speijer D, J Lukeš & M Eliáš. “Sex Is a Ubiquitous, Ancient, and Inherent Attribute of Eukaryotic Life.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 112, no. 29 (2015): 8827–34. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1501725112.
Class 3. Benefits of recombination - 8.11.18
- Hill-Robertson interference - Felipe Rodriguez
- Epistasis -
McDonald MJ, DP Rice & MM Desai. “Sex Speeds Adaptation by Altering the Dynamics of Molecular Evolution.” Nature 531, no. 7593 (2016): 233–36. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature17143.
Class 4. Frequency of sexual reproduction - 15.11.18
- Red Queen Hypothesis - Linda Hagberg
- Sex and adaptation - Pilar Herrera
Luijckx P, EK Ho Ho, M Gasim, S Chen, A Stanic, C Yanchus, Y Seong Kim & AF Agrawal. “Higher Rates of Sex Evolve during Adaptation to More Complex Environments.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 114, no. 3 (2017): 534–39. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1604072114.
Class 5. Evolution of sexual asymmetries: mating types - 22.11.18
- What are mating types? - Chit Tong Lio
Constable, GWA, and H Kokko. “The Rate of Facultative Sex Governs the Number of Expected Mating Types in Isogamous Species.” Nature Ecology & Evolution 2, no. 7 (July 2018): 1168–75. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41559-018-0580-9.
Class 6. Evolution of sexual asymmetries: anisogamy - 29.11.18
- Sperm competition & limitation - Lucas Asis
- Uniparental inheritance - Bernhard Bein
Hanschen ER, MD Herron, JJ Wiens, H Nozaki, and RE Michod. “Multicellularity Drives the Evolution of Sexual Traits.” The American Naturalist 192, no. 3 (July 10, 2018): E93–105. https://doi.org/10.1086/698301.
Class 7. Evolution of sexual asymmetries: separate sexes - 6.12.18
- Cost of inbreeding -
- Hermaphrodites and gonochorists - Erdem Özkaya
Charlesworth B & D Charlesworth. “A Model for the Evolution of Dioecy and Gynodioecy.” The American Naturalist 112, no. 988 (1978): 975–97. https://doi.org/10.1086/283342, pdf.
Class 8. Diversity of sex determination systems - 20.12.18
- Sex determination systems - Irina Formoso
- Environmental sex determination
- Social sex determination
- Parasite sex determination
- Maternal control of sex determination
- Genetic sex determination
- Sex determination loci -
Pennell MW, JE Mank, and CL Peichel. “Transitions in Sex Determination and Sex Chromosomes across Vertebrate Species.” Molecular Ecology 27, no. 19 (2018): 3950–63. https://doi.org/10.1111/mec.14540.
Class 9. Sexes and “sex roles” - 10.1.19
- Sex role reversal - Athina Karapli-Petritsopoulou
Jennions MD, and L Fromhage. “Not All Sex Ratios Are Equal: The Fisher Condition, Parental Care and Sexual Selection.” Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 372, no. 1729 (2017): 20160312. https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2016.0312.
Class 10. Sexual conflict - 17.1.19
- Sexual antagonism -
- Inter and intralocus sexual conflict - Saoirse McMahon
Vicoso B, JJ Emerson, Y Zektser, S Mahajan & D Bachtrog. “Comparative Sex Chromosome Genomics in Snakes: Differentiation, Evolutionary Strata, and Lack of Global Dosage Compensation.” PLoS Biol 11, no. 8 (2013): e1001643. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001643.
Class 11. Sex chromosome evolution - 24.1.19
- Suppression of recombination - Vera Yilmaz
Fontaine A, I Filipović, T Fansiri, A Hoffmann, C Cheng, M Kirkpatrick, G Rašić & L Lambrechts. “Extensive Genetic Differentiation between Homomorphic Sex Chromosomes in the Mosquito Vector, Aedes aegypti.” Genome Biology and Evolution 9, no. 9 (September 1, 2017): 2322–35. https://doi.org/10.1093/gbe/evx171.
Class 12. Sex chromosome turnover - 31.1.19
- Sex chromosome degeneration - Kosar Saad
van Doorn GS & M Kirkpatrick. “Turnover of Sex Chromosomes Induced by Sexual Conflict.” Nature 449, no. 7164 (2007): 909–12. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature06178.
Paper: Blaser O, S Neuenschwander & N Perrin. “Sex-Chromosome Turnovers: The Hot-Potato Model.” The American Naturalist 183, no. 1 (January 1, 2014): 140–46. https://doi.org/10.1086/674026.
Class 13. Cheating Mendel - 7.2.19
- Meiotic drive - Santhosh Totagera
De La Filia, AG, S Andrewes, JM Clark & L Ross. “The Unusual Reproductive System of Head and Body Lice (Pediculus humanus).” Medical and Veterinary Entomology 32, no. 2 (June 2018): 226–34. https://doi.org/10.1111/mve.12287.